Historically, different intellectuals have created the ideologies that have moulded societies; each class creates one or more groups of intellectuals. Thus, if the [working] class wants to succeed in becoming hegemonic, it must also create its own intellectuals to develop a new ideology.

"They are not only thinkers, writers and artist but also organisers such as civil servants and political leaders, and they not only function in civil society and the state, but also in the productive apparatus..." (Simon, 1991: 90)

"Because of the way society develops, different groups of individuals will be required to take on particular tasks. Gramsci suggests that although all tasks require a degree of intellectual and creative ability, some individuals will be required to perform tasks or functions which are overtly intellectual.

In the first instance, these occupations are associated with the particular technical requirements of the economic system. Subsequently, they may be associated with the more general administrative and organisational institutions which synchronise the activities of the economy with those of society as a whole.

In the political sphere, each social group or class (which is itself brought into being by the particular way in which economic practices are organised) generates a need for intellectuals who both represent the interests of that class and develop its ideational understanding of the world." (Ransome, 1992: 198)

Gramsci, Antonio (1891 - 1937)

Italian Marxist theorist. Gramsci's observations of the rise of fascism amongst the Western European working-class laid the groundwork for his revolutionary theories of hegemony. This is a concept predicated on the idea that a dominant group in society aims to win the consent of subordinate groups in society through a process of intellectual and moral leadership. Cultural theorists have applied this concept in their scholarly study of popular culture, and the manner in which hegemony is played out and negotiated amongst groups of varying socio-cultural backgrounds.